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ENG 126: Avoiding Flawed Logic Please type in your own example for each of the following logical fallacies, and submit by Fri. 3/22. You should…

ENG 126: Avoiding Flawed Logic

Please type in your own example for each of the following logical fallacies, and submit by Fri. 3/22. You should think of your own example and not take it from another source. Your example doesn’t have to be on course content, but should provide a statement that is an example of the given type of flawed thinking.
Logical Fallacy Worksheet: for detailed descriptions, see “Avoiding Flawed Logic” (pp. 337-)
definition: fallacy: an error of reasoning based on faulty use of evidence or incorrect inference (interpretation of the facts)

hasty generalization (338) — drawing a conclusion based on insufficient evidence. Example: The stock market went down after I invested in an IRA, so therefore I should stop investing in the stock market.

your example.:__________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
2. post hoc or doubtful cause (338-9) –one event follows another, but it may not be caused by the other event.
Example: When I bring an umbrella to school, it does not rain. Because I have an umbrella, that is the reason it does not rain.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
3. false analogy (340) –a comparison is drawn between two situations that are not parallel
Example: Producing meat can be as efficient as producing cars in a factory.
your ex.: ___________________________________________________________
4. ad hominem (341)–an unfair attack on the person giving the opinion that is not related to the subject at hand
Example: How can Mitt Romney be a good president if he speaks French?
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
5. false dilemma (342)–the arguer implies that only two alternatives are available
Example: We should either keep building up troop levels or pull out completely.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
6. slippery slope (342)–an arguer suggests that one step will lead to a worse step, but she should provide evidence to back up this claim
Example: If we allow hate speech in school, pretty soon schools will be overrun with chaos and violence.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
7. begging the question (343)–the arguer makes a statement assuming the issue in question has already been proven
Example: Standardized testing will improve education by making schools better.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
8. straw man (343-4)–the arguer attacks a view that is similar but different from that of his opposition—often something that is easier to knock down
Example: Those who want to regulate hate speech do not care about protecting free speech.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
9. faulty use of authority (338)–could be a faulty use of expert opinions.
Example: Because Paul Newman was a famous actor, he must make good salad dressings.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
10. non sequitur (345)–it does not follow—the arguer gives a reason that does not support his claim
Example: Because she did not respond to my email, she does not like me.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
11. Tu Quoque (Two Wrongs Make a Right) (344)–”you too”–the arguer says that it is hypocritical for you to criticize me if you are doing the same thing.
Example: How can you ask me to stop smoking when you eat too many sweets?
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
12. distorting the facts –facts can be distorted or left unreported for the benefit of the person doing the distorting.
Example: Although the company knew the peanut butter was contaminated, they shipped it anyway as if it were safe.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
13. oversimplification –generalizing in a way that exaggerates or oversimplifies the truth.
Example: If you try hard enough, you will succeed.
your ex.: ____________________________________________________________
 
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