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Sports concussions and traumatic brain injury

APA minumum 250 words and over.   Professional as well as amateur athletes in contact sports including football, soccer, boxing […]

APA minumum 250 words and over.
 
Professional as well as amateur athletes in contact sports including football, soccer, boxing and hockey are at risk for repeated concussions. Fortunately, the medical community is examining the long-term effects of repeated concussions or traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) on athletes with the goal of identifying preventative measures as well as treatments. In 2012, the National Football League donated $30 million dollars to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health to support research in brain injuries. The Ling et al. article from this week’s assigned reading discusses how chronic brain injuries lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive degenerative disease including memory loss, confusion, aggression, depression, abnormal impulse control, impaired judgment, and ultimately dementia.
Respond to the following:

What are the types of brain injuries that occur in high-impact sports?
At the cellular level, how are neurons and glia believed to be affected by TBIs?
What are the macroscopic features (neuropathology) of chronic TBI? How is the structure of the brain affected?
Do you think enough is currently being done to protect amateur and/or professional players? Why or why not?
Do you believe there should be new rules and regulations and/or development of new protective gear? Why or why not?
What do you think should be done to protect professional players from TBIs? Would you recommend the same interventions for amateur players? Why or why not?
How would you advise a friend about their participation in professional football regarding repeated concussions?

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