Please respond with a paragraph to the following post, add citations and references:
Mucor is an infection causing mold that lives throughout the environment and typically found in decaying organic material; fruits, vegetables, compost piles or rotting wood (Kung’u, n.d.). Every day we are commonly exposed to microscopic fungal spores like Mucor, they are nearly impossible to avoid and typically arenâ€t harmful (CDC, 2015b). For those with weakened immune systems, the spores can create an infection in the sinuses and lungs, spreading to other areas in the body (CDC, 2015b). Immunocompromised individuals are found to be most susceptible such as IV drug users, diabetics, burn victims, or those with HIV (Kung’u, n.d.).
Pneumonia develops when spores are inhaled into the bronchioles and alveoli, thus infarction and necrosis results; the infection can then spread to areas such as the mediastinum and the heart (Wallace & Farinola, 2005). Nursing interventions to be helpful would be to support the symptoms accompanying symptoms such as shortness of breath; assessing vital signs and applying oxygen as necessary. Education is critical for this already immunocompromised patient. They may need supplemental material regarding infection prevention since they are at risk for other illnesses as well.
The patientâ€s glucose is elevated at 138; this is indicative of diabetes and may explain the poor immunity defense. Lymphocytes and WBCs are elevated, both expressing infection. A PaO2 of 59 mm Hg displays hypoxemia, most likely due to disease in the lung interfering with the gas exchange in the alveoli. The disturbance in the lung field is evidenced by the opacity seen on the chest x-ray. It appears that the patient has advanced into metabolic alkalosis with an HC03 level of 29; no longer in the acute phase and isnâ€t compensating with a normal level. Metabolic alkalosis is further noted with an elevated pH and HCO3, along with a low PaCO2.
The outlook for these patients can be grim but are dependant on the initial degree of immunosuppression, the infection site, and how quickly they are diagnosed and treated. The mortality rate is approximately 50%, but this can be improved if it is cared for soon enough (CDC, 2015a). Often, surgery is required to remove the mucormycosis infected tissue, while simultaneously being managed with antibiotics: common medications are amphotericin B, posaconazole or isavuconazole, and administered by IV(CDC, 2015c). Additionally, the condition causing the immunosuppression also should be addressed (Wallace & Farinola, 2005).
CDC. (2015a). Information for Healthcare Professionals about Mucormycosis. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/health-professionals.html
CDC. (2015b). Sources of Mucormycosis. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/causes.html
CDC. (2015c). Treatment for Mucormycosis. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/treatment.html
Kung’u, J. (n.d.). Mucor. Retrieved from https://www.moldbacteria.com/mold/mucor.html
Wallace, S., & Farinola, M. (2005). The Johns Hopkins Microbiology Newsletter, 24(3).
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