week 9 replies

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1- reply to both below, no more than 75 words per each.PSY 77104 days agoKarissa Milano unit 9 discussion scenario 3COLLAPSEABA Procedure:  A DRO (differential reinforcement of other behavior) to address SIB exhibited by a toddler in a home setting.Special Methods: Any appropriate behaviors other than SIB will be reinforced through a specific amount of time (every five minutes). Reinforcement is only given when the individual does not engage in SIB behaviors.RisksNotes1 Implementing the plan at home can be difficult.1 The family might be concerned with their safety and the safety of the child. There should be a protocol before implementing this intervention.2 Family members and client could be at risk for danger.2 The parents might be concerned for the safety of themselves and their child.3 Possible increase in SIB3 SIB behaviors might increase before it decreases due to an extinction burst.  The behavior analyst should have a protocol before implementing this intervention.4 SIB behaviors could remain the same.4 If there is no change in the clients SIB behaviors then a preference test should be conducted to determine motivating reinfoncers.BenefitsNotes1 Generalization1 The client will learn to use this skill at home as well as be able generalize this skill into other settings.2 Improved learning environment2 SIB behaviors will decrease and appropriate behavior will be taught. SIB will no longer impact the client and family in the future.3 Increase in appropriate behaviors3 Appropriate behaviors will be taught and replace the SIB behavior.4 Least intrusive intervention4 Using reinforcement to decrease the problem behavior and increase appropriate behaviors. This is a least restrictive method of treatment.5 Parent training and involvement5 Parents will feel confident about implementing this evidence based treatment at home. This will can lead to an increase a buy in from the family and they will feel comfortable implementing other interventions in the future.Summary: DRO is an intervention that is used when the client does not engage in the problem behavior (SIB) (Bailey & Burch, 2016).  Reinforcement should only be given to the individual after a certain amount of time that the client is not engaging in the problem behavior; in this case it should be after five minutes of the client not engaging in SIB. The person who is implementing this treatment should not reinforce the problem behavior. The benefits of implementing DRO outweigh the risks of implementing DRO. DRO is a good intervention to use when decreasing SIB behavior.  Although there are some risks, the individual who is implementing DRO should have the knowledge, training and experience and be confident when implementing DRO ( Bailey & Burch, 2016).ReferenceBailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2016). Ethics for behavior analysts (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.PSY 77113 days agoEmily Gentile Unit 9 DiscussionCOLLAPSEValidity is the extent to which the data represents the behavior being assessed. In simpler terms did the measurement system measure what it was intended to measure. There are three types of validity: internal, external, and social (Barlow et al., 2012).Internal validity provides a clear demonstration that the changes in the dependent variable were directly caused by manipulations of the independent variable and not by cofounding variables. A confounding variable is an extraneous variable that can have an impact on either the independent or dependent variable (Cooper et al., 2019). A few examples of confounding variables are others in a person’s environment, the weather, or a participant being sick. When evaluating the internal validity all confounding variables need to be accounted for and controlled. The visual analysis should illustrate a clear correlation between the change in the dependent variable based on the manipulation of the independent variable.External validity is the degree to which an experiment can be replicated and generalized to different people, settings, and behaviors (Cooper et al., 2019). External validity is important in behavioral research since it allows the research to be replicated under a variety of conditions. External validity can be evaluated by replicating the initial experiment under different conditions and analyzing to see if the outcomes are the same.Social validity refers to choosing socially significant target behaviors for the client and the overall acceptability of the procedures by others (Cooper et al., 2019). Social validity is important because our client’s well being should always be at the forefront of our research. Social validity can be evaluated by analyzing to see if significant others are applying the procedures to the target behaviors and by assessing to see if the procedures are being utilized by the client in social situations.ReferencesCooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2019). Applied behavior analysis (3rd. ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.Barlow D. H., Nock M. K., & Hersen M. (2012). Single Case Experimental Designs: Strategies for Studying Behavior Change, 3/e Vitalsource for Capella University.
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